Memo: Transfrom Do Expression

This is a memo to me on how to implement the down level compiling of
ECMAScript proposal Do Expression and
Async do Expression in
TypeScript.

Need to be reviewed to make sure I’m not missing anything.

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Part 0: Optimized output

It is possible to generate a better output if the do expression satisfies the following requirements:

Requirements

Note: All those limitations does not across the declaration boundary.

  1. The do expression should only contains the following syntax.
    • Block (BlockStatement)
    • EmptyStatement
    • ExpressionStatement
    • IfStatement
    • ThrowStatement
    • HoistableDeclaration (refers to functions with async/generator)
    • ClassDeclaration
    • LexicalDeclaration (let and const)
  2. The do expression should not contains the following things:
    • (The list is empty currently)

Note: We’re allowing let and const but no var because it requires a rewrite to the upper scope.

Note: DebuggerStatement not included because a one-line expression is not friendly to the debugging.

Assume we have a do expression meets the above requirement, we can generate the output
by the following algorithm:

  1. Emit %ToExpression(do_expr.block).

ToExpression(node: Block | BlockStatement)

  1. Let result be an empty List<Expression>.
  2. Let list be clone of node.StatementList.
  3. Move all HoistableDeclaration to the top of the list.
  4. For each element T in list,
    1. Assert: ToExpression(T) matches one of the overload of ToExpression.
    2. Let expr be ToExpression(T)
    3. If expr is not ~Empty~, append expr to result.
  5. Return result (in the form of (expr1, expr2, expr3, ...)).

ToExpression(node: EmptyStatement)

  1. Note: EmptyStatement (;) does not contribute to the result.
  2. Return ~Empty~.

ToExpression(node: ExpressionStatement)

  1. Return node.Expression.

ToExpression(node: IfStatement)

  1. Let condition be node.Condition.
  2. Let left be %ToExpression(node.Then).
  3. Let right be %ToExpression(node.Else).
  4. If left is ~Empty~, Set left to void 0.
  5. If right is ~Empty~, Set right to void 0.
  6. Return (condition ? left : right).

ToExpression(node: ThrowStatement)

  1. Return (e => { throw e })(node.Expression).

ToExpression(node: HoistableDeclaration | ClassDeclaration)

  1. Let name be GetName(node).
  2. Let x be a new temp variable.
  3. Set all Reference that refers to name to refer x instead. (need scope analysis).
  4. Return x = node.

Note: Function and Class both have expression version, it can be converted easily.

Example:

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const x = do {
class T {}
function f() {}
f(new T())
}
// into
var _a, _b
const x = (
(_b = function f() {}),
(_a = class T {}),
_b(new _a)
)

ToExpression(node: LexicalDeclaration)

  1. Let names be all reference defined in the node.
  2. For each name in names,
    1. Let x be a new temp variable.
    2. Set all Reference that refers to name to refer x instead. (need scope analysis).
  3. Return node without let or const keyword.

Note: All LexicalDeclarations are valid expression with let or const removed.

const { a, b } = c; => var _a, _b; ({ a: _a, b: _b } = c);

Example:

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const rnd = do {
let {tmp, tmp2} = rand()
tmp * tmp2;
}
// into
let _a, _b
const rnd = (({ tmp: _a, tmp2: _b } = rand()), _a * _b);

Part 1: Tracking completion values

First, add a temp var (let’s call it _C) to store the completion value.

For every ExpressionStatement E in the do expression block, replace it with _C = _E.

Try statements

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try {
statements
} catch {
statements
} finally {
statements
}
// into
try {
_C = undefined
tracked_statements
} catch {
tracked_statements
} finally {
statements
}

If and Switch statements

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if (expr) { statements; }
// into
if (((_C = undefined), expr)) { tracked_statements; }

switch (expr) { statements; }
// into
switch (((_C = undefined), expr)) { tracked_statements; }

Skipped statements

The following syntactic structures never contribute to the completion value of the do expression therefore not tracking
for completion value insides it.

  • ClassLike
  • FunctionLike
  • Any Declaration
  • Any for loops
  • Finally block in try-finally

Other AST elements

Recursively visit them to track the completion value deeply.

Optimization

  • For continuous ExpressionStatement I should only replace the last one.
  • Maybe I should only track the last meaningful ExpressionStatement in every possible code branch.

Example

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// For code
const x = do {
let a = Math.random()
a * a
}
// It should emit
var _CompletionValue
const x =
((() => {
let a = Math.random()
_CompletionValue = a * a
})(),
_CompletionValue)

Part 2: Control flow in do expression

There’re 5 control flows I need to cover:

  • await
  • yield
  • break
  • continue
  • return

await

await is valid in the following cases:

  1. It is an async do expression
  2. It is using Top Level Await
  3. It is inside the Await context

For case 2 and 3, await is valid to use, therefore I transfrom them as:

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const x = do { ... }
// into
const x = await ((async () => { ... })(), _CompletionValue)

For case 1, just create an async IIFE and returning the Promise.

yield

yield is only valid in normal do expression in a Yield context.

Note there is no arrow function version of generator syntax so I need to take care of the this value.

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const x = (yield* (function*() { ... }).call(this)), _CompletionValue

await+yield

It is only valid in a normal do expression in both Yield and Await context.

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const x = (yield* (async function*() { ... }).call(this)), _CompletionValue

This should be enough. yield* should delegate both Yield and Await to the inner function.

break/continue/return

This is the tricky part of the transform.

There is no way to break/continue/return across the function boundary and I’ll use exceptions to do this.

Let’s talk about return first because it’s only valid in a Return context.

So for return in a do expression, it should generate the code in the following way:

Note this is not an in-place transform, it will transform the containing function entirely to make sure the variable
scopes etc.

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function a() {
const x = do {
const a = 1
return a
}
}
// into
function a() {
var _CompletionValue, _ControlFlowType, _ControlFlowValue
try {
const x =
((() => {
const a = 1
;(_ControlFlowType = 'return'), (_ControlFlowValue = a), null._
})(),
_CompletionValue)
} catch (e) {
if (_ControlFlowType == 'return') return _ControlFlowValue
throw e
}
}

break/continue

This part is the same as the return case but works for LabeledStatement, SwitchStatement, and For loops.

I guess the following transform is safe. Please point out if I’m wrong.

LabeledStatement

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outer: {
inner: {
const val = (do {
// TLA
const val = await Math.random();
if (val > 0.8) break inner;
if (val > 0.6) break outer;
1;
})
}
const x = do { if (quit) break outer; 1; }
}
// Into
var _CompletionValue, _ControlFlowType, _ControlFlowValue, _CompletionValue2, _ControlFlowType2, _ControlFlowValue2
outer: {
inner: {
try {
try {
const val = ((await async (() => {
// TLA
const val = await Math.random();
if (val > 0.8) ((_ControlFlowType = "break"), (_ControlFlowValue = "inner"), null._);
if (val > 0.6) ((_ControlFlowType = "break"), (_ControlFlowValue = "outer"), null._);
_CompletionValue = 1;
})()), _CompletionValue);
} catch(e) {
if (_ControlFlowType == "break") {
if (_ControlFlowValue == "inner") break inner
if (_ControlFlowValue == "outer") break outer
}
throw e
}
const x = (() => {
if (quit) ((_ControlFlowType2 = "break"), (_ControlFlowValue2 = "outer"), null._);
_CompletionValue2 = 1;
})(), _CompletionValue2
} catch (e) {
if (_ControlFlowType2 == "break") {
if (_ControlFlowValue2 == "outer") break outer
}
throw e
}
}
}

Switch and for loops

I guess it the same as LabeledStatement so I’m not going to transform it by hand.

Part 3: Special expressions in do expression

new.target and function.sent

Hoist and replace.

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function x() {
const y = do {
if (!new.target) throw new Error()
1
}
}
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function x() {
const _newTarget = new.target
let _a
const y = do {
if (!_newTarget) throw new Error()
1
}
}

super() call and super.* property

Hoist to function

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class X extends Y {
constructor() {
let x = do {
super() // 1
super.foo() // 2
super.foo.call() // 3
super['foo'] // 4
}
}
}
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class X extends Y {
constructor() {
const super_call = (...x) => super(...x)
const super_get_foo = () => super.foo
const _super_get_prop = (x) => super[x]
let x = do {
super_call() // 1
super_get_foo().call(this) // 2
super_get_foo().x() // 3
_super_get_prop(x) // 4
}
}
}

arguments

Call the wrapped function with upper level arguments.

Note: This transformation is wrong. Since no one is use arguments in the new code today, we can mark it as a type
script error to use arguments in the do expression.

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function x(a, b) {
function y(a, b) {
arguments[1] = 2
}
y.call(this, arguments)
console.log(b)
}

Part 4: Special positions in do expression

Class fields initializer

If do expression appears in a class field initializer, do the following transform.

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class T {
field = [do {}]
}

class T {
field = () => {
return [do {}]
}()
}
Author

Jack Works

Posted on

2021-03-21

Updated on

2022-01-02

Licensed under